Monday, May 31, 2010


In regards to homosexuality and genetics, science has yet to find a link in terms of it being a cause of homosexuality, although a common argument is that an inclination to homosexuality is inborn and immutable. It is widely believed that the public will become more accepting of homosexuality if they are convinced that it is inborn and immutable. For example, neuroscientist and homosexual Simon Levay stated: "...people who think that gays and lesbians are born that way are also more likely to support gay rights."[1] However, a genetic basis to homosexual desire does not prevent homosexuals from choosing not to participate in homosexual activities.

When asked if homosexuality was rooted solely in biology, gay gene researcher, Dean Hamer, replied, "Absolutely not. From twin studies, we already know that half or more of the variability in sexual orientation is not inherited. Our studies try to pinpoint the genetic factors...not negate the psychosocial factors" (Anastasia, 1995, p. 43).[2]
No professional scientist in the last 40 years has even claimed to have found any evidence that queerness is always genetic in all cases. Even the highly publicized identical twin studies by Michael Bailey and Richard Pillard, which were so often touted as evidence for a "gay gene," never found that any more than 52% of the identical twins of queer people were queer. The other 48% of identical twins of queer men were not queer. This leaves at least 48% of the queer community unaccounted for by genetic theories.[Citation Needed]
Contents [hide]
1 Science has found no link
1.1 Genetics, Evolutionary Paradigm, and Creation Science
2 See Also
3 External links
4 References

Science has found no link
See also: Failure of Experiments to Show Genetic Determinism For Homosexuality

Columbia University psychiatry professors Drs. William Byrne and Bruce Parsons stated: "There is no evidence that at present to substantiate a biological theory. [T]he appeal of current biological explanations for sexual orientation may derive more from dissatisfaction with the present status of psychosocial explanations than from a substantiating body of experimental data".There is no scientific consensus favoring a genetic cause of homosexuality, and the American Psychological Association's assertion is merely that:

...most scientists today agree that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors.[3]
The emphasis is on environmental and cognitive factors, because these can be studied scientifically.

Concerned Women of America reports the following:

“ In May 2000, the American Psychiatric Association issued a Fact Sheet, "Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues," which includes this statement:
"Currently, there is a renewed interest in searching for biological etiologies for homosexuality. However, to date there are no replicated scientific studies supporting any specific biological etiology for homosexuality."[4]

Research suggests that adoptive brothers are more likely to both be homosexuals than the biological brothers, who share half their genes. This data prompted the journal Science to report "this . . . suggests that there is no genetic component, but rather an environmental component shared in families".[5][6][7] However, in regards to psychosocial and biological theories in regards to the origin of homosexuality, Columbia University psychiatry professors Drs. William Byrne and Bruce Parsons stated in 1994: "There is no evidence that at present to substantiate a biological theory. [T]he appeal of current biological explanations for sexual orientation may derive more from dissatisfaction with the present status of psychosocial explanations than from a substantiating body of experimental data".[8]

Herbert Hendin wrote:

“ Anthropologists had observed that relatively uncompetitive primitive cultures such as those that do not distinguish or reward the best hunters in distinction to the other men in the tribe have virtually no homosexuality."[9] ”

Dr. Tahir I. Jaz, M.D., Winnipeg, Canada states: "The increasing claims of being "born that way" parallels the rising political activism of homosexual organisations, who politicise the issue of homosexual origins . In the 1970s, approximately ten percent of homosexuals claimed to be "born homosexual" according to a large scale survey....However, in a survey in the 1980s, with the homosexual rights movement increasingly becoming active, thirty-five percent claimed to be born that way.[10]

Dr. Dean Hamer is a researcher often cited to argue that there is empirical data supporting the notion that homosexuality is genetic in origin. News organizations like National Public Radio and Newsweek have done news stories regarding his work.[11] In regards to the press trumpeting various findings genetics-of-behavior research uncritically the science journal Science stated the following in 1994:

“ Time and time again, scientists have claimed that particular genes or chromosomal regions are associated with behavioral traits, only to withdraw their findings when they were not replicated. "Unfortunately," says Yale's [Dr. Joel] Gelernter, "it's hard to come up with many" findings linking specific genes to complex human behaviors that have been replicated. "...All were announced with great fanfare; all were greeted unskeptically in the popular press; all are now in disrepute."[12] ”

Martin A. Silverman, M.D. wrote regarding a famous study of Dr. Dean Hamer:

“ On July 16, 1993, it was reported in Science (pp. 291, 321) that geneticist Dean Hamer and his team at the National Cancer Institute had reported on a study involving 40 pairs of brothers both of whom were gay that had led them to conclude that they had discovered a factor on the X chromosome through which gayness was genetically transmitted to them from their mothers. This was hailed as proof that homosexuality in men is biological in origin. Two years later, however, Eliot Marshall reported in Science (June 30, 1995, p.268) George Ebers and George Rice of the University of Western Ontario had unsuccessfully attempted to replicate Hamer's findings and had "found no evidence that gayness is passed from mother to son" genetically. He also reported that the Office of Research Integrity in the Department of Health and Human Services was investigating Hamer's work.[13] ”

Homosexual behavior is voluntary and subject to control by the human will, just as heterosexual behavior is. Sex and intimacy, though, are basic necessities of human life, and acting on them, whether they be heterosexual or homosexual, is natural.

Genetics, Evolutionary Paradigm, and Creation Science
For more information please see: Genetics, Homosexuality, Evolutionary Paradigm, and Creation Science

In 1993, Professor Miron Baron, M.D., the renowned medical researcher and Professor at Columbia University, wrote in BMJ (British Medical Journal) that there is a conflict relative to the theory of evolution and the notion of genetic determinism concerning homosexuality. Dr. Baron wrote "...from an evolutionary perspective, genetically determined homosexuality would have become extinct long ago because of reduced reproduction."[14] In the United States, liberals are more likely to believe in the theory of evolution.[15] Also, in the United States, twice as many liberals as conservatives (46% versus 22%) believe people are born homosexual and liberals generally have more favorable opinions about homosexuality.[16] Given Dr. Miron Baron's commentary about homosexuality, American liberals are inconsistent on the issues of evolution and homosexuality.

An individual's beliefs regarding creation science/creationism and the theory of evolution appear to influence their views on homosexuality. Creationist scientists and creationist assert that the theory of evolution cannot account for the origin of gender and sexual reproduction.[17][18] Creation Ministries International states: "Homosexual acts go against God’s original design of a man and a woman becoming one flesh — see Genesis 1 and 2, endorsed by Jesus Himself in Matthew 19:3–6."[19] In addition, the vast majority of creation scientists reject the notion of genetic determinism concerning the origin of homosexuality.[20]

Below are some homosexuality statistics which reveal the nature of homosexuality:

Dr. Neil Whitehead and Briar Whitehead state regarding various cultures: "If homosexuality were significantly influenced by genes, it would appear in every culture, but in twenty-nine of seventy-nine cultures surveyed by Ford and Beach in 1952, homosexuality was rare or absent."[1]

Dr. Tahir I. Jaz, M.D., Winnipeg, Canada states: "The increasing claims of being "born that way" parallels the rising political activism of homosexual organisations, who politicise the issue of homosexual origins . In the 1970s, approximately ten percent of homosexuals claimed to be "born homosexual" according to a large scale survey....However, in a survey in the 1980s, with the homosexual rights movement increasingly becoming active, thirty-five percent claimed to be born that way.[2]

In 1980 a study was published in the American Journal of Psychiatry which stated that eleven former homosexual men became heterosexuals "without explicit treatment and/or long-term psychotherapy" through their participation in a Pentecostal church.[3]

In regards to homosexual couples and domestic violence, a recent study by the Canadian government states that "violence was twice as common among homosexual couples compared with heterosexual couples".[4] Also, according the American College of Pediatricians who cite several studies, "Violence among homosexual partners is two to three times more common than among married heterosexual couples."[5]

Regarding homosexuality and promiscuity, in 2004 the Baptist Press reported the following: "A new study by a group of University of Chicago researchers reveals a high level of promiscuity and unhealthy behavior among that city's homosexual male population. According to the researchers, 42.9 percent of homosexual men in Chicago's Shoreland area have had more than 60 sexual partners, while an additional 18.4 percent have had between 31 and 60 partners...As a result, 55.1 percent of homosexual males in Shoreland -- known as Chicago's "gay center" -- have at least one sexually transmitted disease, researchers said."[6]

In September of 2006, the Agape Press reported the following:

“ A survey by The Advocate, a homosexual magazine, revealed that promiscuity is a reality among homosexuals. The poll found that 20 percent of homosexuals said they had had 51-300 different sex partners in their lifetime, with an additional 8 percent having had more than 300.
Unprotected homosexual sex is also a concern among health professionals. A survey in Ireland by the Gay Men's Health Project found that almost half of homosexuals said they were having unprotected sex....

The fact that many homosexuals appear to live their lives in sexual overdrive does not seem to concern leaders in the movement. In an editorial from the same issue (August 15) in which the survey results were published, The Advocate said: "[Homosexuals] have been proud leaders in the sexual revolution that started in the 1960s, and we have rejected attempts by conservatives to demonize that part of who we are."[7]

In November of 2007 the news organization One News Now reported the following regarding Peter LaBarbera of Americans for Truth remarks about the spread of AIDS via male homosexual promiscuity and a conference on AIDS featuring Pastor Rick Warren and Senator Hillary Clinton:

“ Pro-family activist Peter LaBarbera says he shares Pastor Warren's desire to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS but wonders what solutions a politician who is an ardent supporter of the homosexual agenda has to offer in combating the disease. "He says that he's a co-belligerent with people who he disagrees with on other issues," notes LaBarbera, "[so] I guess the question would be: does he disagree strongly with Hillary Clinton's approach to homosexuality and even the AIDS crisis?"
Although he admits he is skeptical of what solutions a defender of the homosexual lifestyle like Clinton has to offer churches for fighting the HIV/AIDS crisis, the activist is calling on Warren and Clinton to use the upcoming summit to tackle the problem of homosexual promiscuity, which often results in HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

"We have homosexual bath houses operating in major cities across this nation," LaBarbera notes. "These are places where men go for anonymous sexual liaisons with other men. They're bringing the HIV virus back to innocent women, because some of these men do not identify as 'gay' and they're even married. So what about that aspect of the AIDS crisis?"[8]

In 2003, LifeSite reported the following regarding a Amsterdam study:

“ As Canada and several U.S. states move toward the legalization of so-called homosexual "marriage," a new study has found that homosexual partnerships last, on average, only one-and-a-half years.
The study is based on the health records of young Dutch homosexuals by Dr. Maria Xiridou of the Amsterdam Municipal Health Service and published in the May issue of the journal AIDS. It also found that men in homosexual relationships have an average of eight partners a year outside their main partnership, adding more evidence to the "stereotype" that homosexuals tend to be promiscuous.[9][10]

Regarding Homosexuality and health, of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the United States during the year 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that about 63% were among men who were infected through sexual contact with other men.[11]

A 1997 CDC report found that among homosexuals who had unprotected anal intercourse and multiple sexual partners, 68 percent were entirely unaware of the HIV status of their partners.[12]

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated the following regarding syphilis in the United States: "While surveillance data are not available by risk behavior, a separate CDC analysis suggests that approximately 64 percent of all adult P&S syphilis cases in 2004 were among men who have sex with men, up from an estimated 5 percent in 1999...."[13]

The CDC reported the following regarding the United States and homosexuality: "CDC conducted sentinel surveillance in 28 cities and found the proportion of cases resistant to fluoroquinolone antibiotics (a first-line treatment for gonorrhea) increased from 4.1 percent in 2003 to 6.8 percent in 2004. Resistance is especially worrisome in men who have sex with men, where it was eight times higher than among heterosexuals (23.8 percent vs. 2.9 percent)."[14]

In 2006, The Medical Journal of Australia stated the following: "High rates of intestinal parasitism are found in MSM [men who have sex with men] throughout the world."[15]

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) both Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM).[16][17]

Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease that mainly infects the lymphatics.[18] According to the recent medical literature, there have been recent outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum in Europe and North America and the outbreaks have been limited to the homosexual community.

In June of 2004, the journal Nursing Clinics of North America reported the following: "One of the more pressing issues for gay men is anal carcinoma. Several recent studies have indicated the rate of anal dysplasia to be increasing in men with and without HIV. Ninety percent of men with HIV have the human papiloma virus (HPV), while 65% of men without HIV have HPV. HVP type 16 is the most troublesome for developing cancer and is found in a significant portion of gay men.[19]

In 2007 the Los Angeles Times reported the frequency of methamphetamine use is twenty times greater among homosexuals than in the general population.[20]

The recent medical literature states the homosexual men and lesbians in the United States have significantly higher rates of cigarette smoking than heterosexuals.[21][22]

A June 2004 , Canadian Community Health Survey of 83,000 people reported the following:

“ The results indicate that, for some health-related measures, there are important differences between the heterosexual population and the gay, lesbian and bisexual population.
Among individuals aged 18 to 59, for example, 21.8% of homosexuals and bisexuals reported that they had an unmet health care need in 2003, nearly twice the proportion of heterosexuals (12.7%). Homosexuals and bisexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to find life stressful.

In addition, 31.4% of homosexuals and bisexuals reported that they were physically active in 2003, compared with 25.4% of heterosexuals.[23][24]

There have been a notable number of incidents involving the issue of homosexuality and the suppression of religious liberty in regards to dissent and the objectionableness of homosexuality. For example, in October of 2001, a 69 year old street preacher named Harry Hammond from Bournemouth, England was subjected to assault by an angry crowd of 40 people while he proclaimed his Christian views in the town center which included a call to repentance in respect to homosexuality.[25] Mr. Hammond was arrested, prosecuted and fined but no arrests were made in respect to those who assaulted him.[26] Appeals to overturn the verdict, which included an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights, were dismissed. [27]
Contents [hide]
1 2006 Survey Finds Men Seek to Leave Homosexual Lifestyle to Heal Emotional Pain
2 Homosexuality Statistics - Data Regarding the United States in the 1960's and 1970's
3 Homosexuality Statistics - Percentage of Individuals Who Are Homosexuals
3.1 Studies Outside the United States
4 Quotes on Homosexuality Statistics
5 See Also
6 References

2006 Survey Finds Men Seek to Leave Homosexual Lifestyle to Heal Emotional Pain
A 2006 survey finds men seek to leave homosexual lifestyle to heal emotional pain rather than outside pressure. In addition, there is other data that supports the above 2006 survey findings.

Homosexuality Statistics - Data Regarding the United States in the 1960's and 1970's
In November of 1998, Dr. Chris Hewitt wrote the following in an article entitled Demography: Implications for the Spread of AIDS published in the Journal of Sex Research regarding homosexuality promiscuity:

“ Throughout the 1960s, several cities experienced a buildup of gay neighborhoods, containing bars, restaurants, clubs, and other institutions catering to homosexuals, (Gagnon, 1990). One indicator of the growth of the gay community is provided by the number of gay establishments listed in Bob Damron's Address Book which rose from 690 places in 1964 to 5800 in 1983 (Darrow, Gorman, & Glick, 1986).[28] ”

In the same article Dr. Hewitt wrote the following regarding the 1970's:

“ Gay liberation in the 1970s was accompanied by an explosion of gay sexuality, especially in tolerant cities such as New York and San Francisco, where gays concentrated..."By their own reports, many men had large numbers of sexual partners annually, often numbering in the hundreds and even in the thousands. [29] ”
Homosexuality Statistics - Percentage of Individuals Who Are Homosexuals

Reverend Louis Sheldon, Chairman of the Traditional Values Coalition and author of The Agenda: The Homosexual Plan to Change AmericaFirst Things: The Journal of Religion, Culture and Public Life gives the following homosexuality statistics in respect to the percentage of homosexuals in the United States:

“ The number of homosexuals in society is uncertain. Popular estimates vary between 5 percent and 10 percent. The 10 percent claim goes back to Alfred Kinsey’s 1948 book Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, in which it is stated that "10 percent of the males are more or less exclusively homosexual for at least three years between the ages of 16 and 55." On the same page, however, Kinsey states that "4 percent of the white males are exclusively homosexual throughout their lives after adolescence." For political reasons, gay rights activists prefer to quote the 10 percent over the 4 percent statistic. Since the publication of Kinsey’s work, the accuracy of his survey has been questioned by many researchers. A more recent 1990 survey of more than 10,000 persons by the National Center for Health Statistics indicates that homosexuals and bisexuals combined amount to approximately 1.5 percent of the population.[30] ”

The Traditional Values Coalition stated the following regarding homosexuality statistics:

“ A NEWLY RELEASED REPORT from the Centers for Disease Control’s National Center for Health Statistics reveals that only 2.3% of the population considers themselves homosexual. The statistics come from a 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and are based on 12,571 interviews with men and women ages 15-44 years of age. (The findings were reported in WorldNetDaily, September 16, 2005).
According to this survey, only 2.3% of the males surveyed considered themselves to be homosexuals; 1.8% considered themselves to be bisexuals. Among men ages 18-44, 92% said they were attracted “only to females” and 3.9% “mostly” to females. Among women, 86% said they were attracted only to males, and 10% “mostly” to males.[31]

Studies Outside the United States
According to a June 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey of 83,000 people the following percentage of homosexuals and bisexuals are in the Canadian population:

“ Among Canadians aged 18 to 59, 1.0% reported that they consider themselves to be homosexual and 0.7% considered themselves bisexual.
About 1.3% of men considered themselves homosexual, about twice the proportion of 0.7% among women. However, 0.9% of women reported being bisexual, slightly higher than the proportion of 0.6% among men.[32][33]

Leadership University reports the following homosexuality statistics:

“ Science magazine, July 3, 1992, reports a very recent French study that found only 4.1% of men and 2.6% of women said they'd had homosexual intercourse at least once in their lives. Only 1.1% of men and 0.3% of women said they'd had homosexual intercourse in the past 12 months (as reported in "Homosexual figures grossly exaggerated," AFA Journal, September, 1992, pg. 9).
The London Daily Mail released last week what it calls `the most exhaustive survey ever conducted into British sexual habits.' The most stunning finding was that only 1.1 percent of British men said they were active homosexuals, a figure similar to the most recent American polls" (World magazine, Jan. 29, 1994, p. 9).[34]

In April of 2007, the American Journal of Public Health analyzed data from 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the data suggested that American lesbian women were 2.69 times more likely to be overweight and 2.47 times more likely to be obese than all other female sexual orientation groups. [35] The abstract for this study indicated that "lesbians are at greater risk for morbidity and mortality linked to overweight and obesity." [36]

Quotes on Homosexuality Statistics

The book The Marketing of Evil by David Kupelian describes how Harvard-educated marketing professionals Marshall Kirk and Hunter Madsen were able to change some American's perceptions regarding homosexuality.David Kupelian writes about how the destructive homosexual lifestyle was marketed to America despite the homosexuality statistics above:

“ ...let me introduce you to two experts on the selling of homosexuality to America; in fact, they wrote the book. Harvard-educated marketing professionals Marshall Kirk and Hunter Madsen authored the acknowledged PR bible of the gay-rights movement, "After the Ball: How America Will Conquer Its Fear and Hatred of Gays in the '90s."
The sophisticated strategy Kirk and Madsen lay out for changing the way Americans think about homosexuality boasts three phases: "Desensitization," "Jamming" and "Conversion."

"Desensitization," these two gay marketing gurus tell us, consists of inundating the public in a "continuous flood of gay-related advertising, presented in the least offensive fashion possible. If straights can't shut off the shower, they may at least eventually get used to being wet."...

"Jamming," explains marketing expert Paul E. Rondeau of Regent University, in his comprehensive study "Selling Homosexuality to America," "is psychological terrorism meant to silence expression of or even support for dissenting opinion." Radio counselor and psychologist Dr. Laura Schlessinger experienced big-time jamming during the run-up to her planned television show. Outraged over a single comment critical of homosexuals she had made on her radio program, activists launched a massive intimidation campaign against the television program's advertisers. As a result, the new show was stillborn.

"After the Ball" tries to inspire potential jammers by providing a juicy list of negative associations with which opponents, usually Christians, are to be smeared. They include: "Klansmen demanding that gays be slaughtered or castrated," "hysterical backwoods preachers, drooling with hate," "menacing punks, thugs and convicts who speak coolly about the 'fags' they have bashed," and a "tour of Nazi concentration camps where homosexuals were tortured and gassed."....

For the inside scoop on the meaning of conversion, let's check in with our gay brainwashing experts, Kirk and Madsen:

We mean conversion of the average American’s emotions, mind, and will, through a planned psychological attack, in the form of propaganda fed to the nation via the media. We mean "subverting" the mechanism of prejudice to our own ends – using the very processes that made America hate us to turn their hatred into warm regard – whether they like it or not.[37]

Peter LaBarbera of Americans for Truth stated:

“ Homosexual activists like San Francisco researcher Michael Scarce resent it and cry “homophobia!” when the obvious health risks linked to male homosexual behavior are brought up in debate, much less studied by scientists. After all, that’s “discrimination” since everything is “equal,” right?...Allowing homosexual activists a “protester’s veto” over legitimate medical inquiry and research will only cost more men’s lives, as larger society and especially young men are denied clear information on the special health risks of “gay” sex viz a viz normal, natural straight sex. - Peter LaBarbera[38] ”

Matt Barber of Concerned Women of America has stated:

“ Homosexuality has become an increasingly prevalent part of modern society. It has infiltrated our schools, our news media, our entertainment media and may soon redefine our concept of marriage.
However, homosexuality is by its very nature dangerous to those who practice it. And society is doing homosexuals a disservice when it endorses and promotes homosexuality as normal. In doing so, it is encouraging these Americans to engage in self-destructive behavior.

Homosexuality is an issue of morality. But it is also an fundamental issue of public health. The evidence is clear. American government, educational systems, and courts should note the facts presented in this paper and advance public policy and curricula that encourage sound behavior rather than offering special protection and endorsement to a behavior that threatens individuals as well as public health.

The future of America hangs in the balance. If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moral grounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough to convince the fair-minded that homosexuality is incompatible with good public health.[39]

See Also
Causes of Homosexuality
Homosexuality Research
1.↑ My Genes Made Me Do it - a scientific look at sexual orientation by Dr Neil Whitehead and Briar Whitehead - Chapter 6
3.↑ E.M. Pattison and M.L. Pattison, "'Ex-Gays': Religiously Mediated Change in Homosexuals," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 137, pp. 1553-1562, 1980
4.↑ 2004 General Social Survey, Statistics Canada, Canada's National Statistical Agency, July 7, 2005
6.↑ Baptist Press, MARRIAGE DIGEST: New study: Homosexual men prone to promiscuity by Michael Foust (Posted on Jan 16, 2004)
9.↑ Homosexual Unions Last Only 1.5 Years, Says New Study
10.↑ AIDS. 17(7):1029-1038, May 2, 2003
15.↑ Letter to the editor - Locally acquired infection with Entamoeba histolytica in men who have sex with men in Australia, Damien J Stark, Rashmi Fotedar, John T Ellis and John L Harkness, MJA 2006; 185 (8): 41716.↑
19.↑ Nursing Clinics of North America North Am. 2004 Jun;39(2):404
20.↑ More Gay Men Using Meth, Study Finds, by R. Rosenblatt, Los Angeles Times, April 11, p. B6.
21.↑ Cigarette smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: how serious a problem? (United States), Cancer Causes & Control, 2004 Oct;15(8):797-803
22.↑ Gay/Lesbian sexual orientation increases risk for cigarette smoking and heavy drinking among members of a large Northern California health plan, BMC Public Health. 2006 Oct 3;6:241
35.↑ Overweight and Obesity in Sexual-Minority Women: Evidence From Population-Based Data, Ulrike Boehmer, Deborah J. Bowen, Greta R. Bauer, American Journal of Public Health, 2007 Jun;97(6):1134-40. E pub 2007 Apr 26.
36.↑ Overweight and Obesity in Sexual-Minority Women: Evidence From Population-Based Data, Ulrike Boehmer, Deborah J. Bowen, Greta R. Bauer, American Journal of Public Health, 2007 Jun;97(6):1134-40. E pub 2007 Apr 26.